Bykasov V. E., Chuyan G. N., Bykasov A. V. Kamchatsky Hydroecoregion // Regularities of the Structure and Evolution of geospheres. Proceedings of V International Interdisciplinary Scientific Symposium. Vladivostok, 2000. P. 239–241.
Bykasov V. E.*, Chuyan G. N.**, Bykasov A. V.***
*Institute of Volcanology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
**Kamchatka Institute of Ecology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
***Moscow State Technical University «MAMI», Moscow Russia
Kamchatka hydroecoregion which we distinguish (Bykasov, 1991, 1994) within the boundary of generally accepted fishery areas of the zone of Kamchatka region economic interests and northern (from the Bussol straight) part of the Kuril Islands is an integrated and complex natural system. Its morphological-genetic integrity and functional unity are defined by relative homogeneity of hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, hydroclimatic, and, of course, hydrobiological conditions and peculiarities.That is in the first approximation the Kamchatsky hydroecoregion can and should be accounted as an original natural system without distinctly marked hierarchic rank and taxonomical affiliation. The last ones are not distinctly marked in the sense that from the viewpoint of regional (individual) subdivision of the landscape sphere the hydroecoregion is the formation knowingly of a higher rank than the landscape province, but its rank is apparently inferior to that of the statues of the country landscape. Furthermore the Kamchatsky hydroecoregion is represented by land territory and water areas of the seas and ocean, but when segregating concrete landscape countries as a rule either land countries or sea water areas are segregated separately. And, finally, the geographical range of the hydroecoregion just does not coincide with the boundary of the Kuril-Kamchatka mountain-volcanic country regardless of the range of its segregation – with continental part or without it.
The Kamchatsky hydroecoregion, being the component structural part of the united nature global system of one of the world’s richest North-Western Pacific fishing subbasin, is the original natural space. At the same time the hydroecoregion having the unique social-economic function (the supplier of 20% of all animal protein of the country) is the original social system according all economic characteristics. As just the hydrobioresource component of the Kamchatsky hydroecoregion conditions extremely narrow specialization of its national-economic mechanism – catching and processing of fish and sea products providing about 55% of gross and more than 85% of commodity products (in money terms), up to 90% of barter and more than 95% of currency income. This very fact allows to approach the hydroecoregion as one of the verities of natural-social systems or, if to be more precise, as the peculiar and united informational space, that is as formations — informational structures of such kind that in our time draws the most fixed attention from the viewpoint of synergetics and informational-structural analysis methodology.
The basis of notions of landscape-ecological (physical-geographic) space as the complex and functionally integral structure was formed even in the first half of our century. However these notions were developed within the framework of the concept of integrated informational-structural (natural and social) space only during last time when it became absolutely clear that environment as a material system undergo changes of its condition not only and not so much because of influence of natural processes as because of different anthropogenic activity. Being the component and structural part of the organic integrated global system of one of world’s richest North-Western Pacific fishing sub-basin, Kamchatsky hydroecoregion is the integrated informational space.
A principal property of any informational space is its cause-and-effect framework formed by chains of consecutive and (or) connected interactions between elements and components of this structure. At that, the basic elements of this framework are such landscape complexes and ecosystems which correspond with main natural conditions of the concrete region as well as with principal peculiarities of its social-economic development.
The most adequate in this respect in Kamchatsky hydroecoregion are basin systems of water streams and reservoirs. In the first place this is because the most distinctive feature of Kamchatsky hydroecoregion as such is the fact that Kuril-Kamchatka volcanic arch, landscape-ecological framework of which is formed by basins of more than 100 thousand rivers, is its main support and basic element. And in the second place river basins are just those elements of the regional informational framework which connect terrestrial landscapes and ecosystems and the shelf and sea water areas adjoining to them into the integral informational space. This is due to similar-directed (from the watershed to bottoms of sedimentation basins) flows of substance, energy and information which are moved by surface and underground run-offs.
In its turn the landscape-ecological structure of the region’s basins systems is represented by mouth-coastal moor-meadow, flood plain willow-poplar, above-flood plain terrace forest (or tundra), between-rivers plane moor-tundra-meadow, submontane-hilly-spurry forest, slope-talus mountain-forest, under-bald mountain mountain-cedar bushes, bald mountain mountain-tundra-meadow and rocky-nival stony-desolate types of the territory. These types formation and development reflect the specific regional-individual (morphogenetic) as well as typical zonal-climatic peculiarities of the region as the natural system. And as the main characteristic of the territory type as the social system is relative equivalence of its economic exploitation conditioned by the regular composition of ecosystems occupying the location of each type of territory these ones reflect the main regional peculiarities of the region development. At that, mouth-coastal, flood plane and above-flood plane terrace types of a territory are the most important among all natural elements of basin systems as mouth-coastal type of a territory is most of all characterised as the place where there are fish-catching and fish-processing enterprises and factories and flood plane and above-flood plane terrace types of a territory are mostly interesting as the basic place of salmon spawning grounds location.
Thus, on the basis of genetic, morphological and functional integrity of surface basin systems and the shelf and sea water areas connected with it and also by virtue of dominating of rivers and their basins in the structure of natural landscapes and ecosystems of Kamchatsky hydroecoregion, landscape complexes of river basins to be taken as the basic elements of its informational structure.
Быкасов В. Е.*, Чуян Г. Н.**, Быкасов А. В.***
* ИВ и ** КИЭП ДВО РАН, Петропавловск-Камчатский, *** МГТУ, Москва, Россия
Камчатский гидроэкорегион, обособляемый нами в границах рыбопромысловых районов зоны экономических интересов Камчатской области и северной (от пролива Буссоль) части Курильских островов, представляет собою единую и сложную природную систему, Её морфогенетическое единство и функциональная целостность определяется относительной однородностью гидрологических, гидрогеологических, гидрогеохимических, гидроклиматических и, конечно же, гидробиологических условий и особенностей. Социальная его значимость обусловливается ведущей ролью гидробионтов в структуре народнохозяйственного комплекса Камчатки и Курильских островов.